Serat Nitiprana Piwulang Budi Luhur

Serat Nitiprana anggitane R. Ng. Yasadipura (1729-1803), mujudake salah sijine serat piwulang tumrap para mudha tumuju marang budi kang luhur. Karya sastra iki mung cendhak wae, yaiku mung sak pupuh (Dhandhanggula), dumadi saka 48 pada. Saka babon asline kang tinulis mawa aksara Jawa, dening Departemen Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan, ing taun 1979, kawetokake edisi aksara Latine kang transliterasine ditindakake dening Kamajaya.

Ing pada kapisan kaandharake menawa karya sastra iki tetembungane kawangun tetembangan, kanthi sastra campuran antarane Jawa lan Arab. Dene babon piwulange saka tanah Arab kasempalake saka kitab Sifat Ul Ulaka. Piwulang antarane Jawa lan Islam ora ana sisip sembire, sakarone jumbuh, kepara tumbu oleh tutup.

Para mudha menawa niyat nggayuh budi kang luhur, kang sepisanan den lakoni, yaiku tansaha laku becik. Tumindak kang bener, linambaran ati sabar. Ati kang sabar nyengkakake nggayuh ati kang suci. Saka ati kang suci iki bakal mancar kasukcen marang dhiri pribadhi lumeber mring kiwa tengene. Ati kang suci bisa nulak tekane azab kang ala.

Ati kang suci minangka kuncine. Ngendhaleni nafsu kang ala, cumaket marang samubarang kabecikan lan bebener. Ora tedhas klawan pambujuke setan. Ati kang suci minangka pawitane. Nyedhak ndedonga mring Ingkang Kuwasa. Gusti enggal ngijabahi mring sadhengah panyuwunan.

SIFAT PITU

Kajlentrehake yen wong kang luhur utawa asor budine iku bisa kasemak saka tandha-tandha ing badane, yaiku solah tingkah lan tetembungane. Wong kang wis putus bebudene, katandha nduweni sifat pitu, yaiku:

1. Nadyan diala-ala dening liyan, ora nedya genti gawe ala, malah kepara males kabecikan. Atine tansah binuka mring sasami lan sugih pangapura.

2. Atine tansah madhep manteb mring Gusti Allah. Ngregani marang wong kang gawe kabecikan marang dheweke. Andhap asor marang sapa wae. Ora nedya gawe pitunaning liyan.

3. Seneng marang solah tingkah kang becik lan nyingkiri panggawe kang ala.

4. Bisa ndhahar ature liyan kanthi tetimbangan kang permati.

5. Apa kang ingucap tansah dhidhasari dening tetimbangan kang gumathok.

6. Seneng olah pikir, tansah ndedonga, lan eling yen wong urip iku tekane ngendon bakal kapundhut.

7. Menawa ngalami musibah dilakoni kanthi sabar minangka ujian saka Gusti Allah.

Semono uga tandhane wong kang asor ing budi, uga dumadi saka sifat pitu, yaiku:

1. Yen guneman cal-cul ora dipikir kanthi permati lan sak gunem-guneme tansah natoni atine liyan.

2. Sombong, congkak, geleme srawung milih-milih wong, mung sing dianggep padha drajate wae sing disrawungi.

3. Kurang sopan santun, kepara gonyak-ganyuk ing pasrawungan.

4. Gampang nesu lan aten-atene keras marang sapa wae.

5. Drengki, srei, jahil, methakil, seneng pradul, adu-adu, lan adol gunem.

6. Sarwa sulaya yen diajak gawe becik.

7. Yen ketaman musibah kakehan sambat, ora sabaran.

 

MAKSIYAT TELU

Sabanjure katerangake, klebu laku utama jroning nggayuh budi luhur, ing antarane yaiku sifat tinarbuka lan ora ana kesele luru ngelmu, becik ngelmu kadonyan apa dene ngelmu agami. Drajat pangkat kang dhuwur durung njamin kamukten lan kamulyan. Kabeh iku mau isih kudu linambaran kanthi madhep manteb pasrah mring Gusti Allah. Manteb anggone bekti marang Gusti, pasa saperlune, tafakur kanthi ngurangi turu, sarta ndonga kanthi khusuk.

Saliyane iku, den simpangi anane maksiyat kang telu. Sing jeneng maksiyat iku ora mung malima (main, minum, madon, madat, maling), isih ana maksiyat sing luwih mbebayani tumrap jiwa. Maksiyat cacah telu mau yaiku potang kanthi nganakake dhuwit (lintah darat), nampa punjungan kanthi sarat (suap/pungli), lan goroh jroning bakulan (ngelongi timbangan). Maksiyat kang telu iku ngasilake dhuwit riba, kang ora pantes tumrap wong kang nggayuh bebuden luhur.

Dhuwit riba bisa njalari dalane pepati dadi peteng. Jroning sakaratul maut, riba ngaling-alingi lakune ati kang padhang, nuwuhake rasa bingung, samubarang dadi rumit, nyawa mlayu tanpa tujuwan, tanpa gondhelan, ora ana sing paring pitulungan. Mula diati-ati, amrih dalane pepati mengko padhang jingglang. Bener lan pener lakune ruh.

Budi luhur tumuju mring pepati kang padhang. Padhang atine, padhang dalane. Piwulang marang pepati kang padhang ora bisa digawe gampang. Sarate ngudi ngelmu lan kawruh rina klawan wengi, tarak brata ngedohke laku asor, ngendhaleni aluamah, nggusah sombong lan srakah, nyencang amarah lan supiah.

Ana maneh kang kudu disiriki. Aja sepisan-pisan ngehaki barang kang ora sah manut hukum, yaiku warisane wong cethil lan wong kang seneng gawe pitenah. Amrih ora nemoni kacilakan lan kasangsaran selawase.

Duwea watak sabar lan tawakal. Wong sabar lan tawakal bakale nemoni kabahagyan lan keslametan. Slamet lan bahagya iku mancarake kabecikan. Sing becik bakale nggawa manfaat, nekakake anugrah kang agung. Anugrah iku wahyu petunjuk saka Gusti Allah. Iki sing utama. Anugrah Gusti asipat asih lan rahman. Asih lan rahman mancarake eling. Eling mancarake makrifat. Makrifat ora liya mujudake asih saka Gusti Allah.

Sabanjure, laku kang kudu linakonan dening para mudha kang nedya nggayuh luhure bebuden, nuladhaa marang tindak-tanduke Nabi Muhammad SAW. Uga aja nganti keri nyinau sifate Gusti Allah cacah 20. Iku kabeh minangka jangkepe piwulang marang bebuden luhur tumrap wong Jawa kang ngrasuk agama Islam.

Ature: Poerwanto Rs.

JB 47/LX, 23-29 Juli 2006

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